Citing sources within a research paper

If you use a service like this—such as Lexis-Nexis—to find an article that you then cite in your paper, you must include the database name in your Works Cited or list of References. The principle is that you want your reader to know how to retrieve your source for further research. Note: You may notice that listing Internet sources often takes more time and care than listing print sources.

Hitchens, Christopher. However, some instructors may prefer that you use URLs. APA: Hitchens, C. An online journal is a website that publishes new material on a regular schedule often weekly or monthly , with a journal title or other masthead, but that does not release a print publication. An online journal is not the same as the online version of a periodical that also publishes in print. Give the publication date of the article for MLA , followed by the date that you accessed the site.

MLA: Fangmann, Alexander. World Socialist Web Site. APA: Fangmann, A.

Citing Sources in MLA Format

Illinois Supreme Court strikes down pension cuts. Fangmann, A. Many organizations maintain websites hosting information about the organization or about the field that they work in. Some examples include commercial companies, universities, non-profit organizations, political groups, and government agencies. The reliability of these websites varies widely, as these organizations often use their websites to promote specific causes and may therefore emphasize only the facts and ideas that support their goals.

But sometimes these organizations have the most comprehensive coverage of topics that pertain to them. If you are conscientious about identifying who sponsors the site, your reader will be better prepared to examine the material you present. Websites hosted by university departments and programs would generally be considered reliable sources, especially in their areas of scholarly expertise. More caution is warranted when the site discusses politics or issues of university governance.

Be careful, too, to distinguish sites created by individual faculty members from those sponsored by the larger institution. Whenever possible, you should identify the author of the material you use from a website. This title is followed by the name of the main website, if there is one, and the name of the sponsoring organization.

The final item is the date that you accessed the site. In that case, list by the title of the site—if there is one—or by the name of the organization. APA: The horcrux of love. This category is a little hard to define. Unlike online journals or other periodicals, topic websites are not usually revised on a regular schedule, although material may be added from time to time.

Finally, topic websites may also overlap with private websites, which often focus on a single issue that their author is passionate about. If you take these precautions, topic websites are sometimes useful for giving a broad overview or putting you on the track of more authoritative sources.

APA: Mohanraj, M. The early years: Mary Anne Mohanraj. Private websites come in many forms. Some announce themselves as fan sites, indicating that the author has an intense interest but no special background or credentials. Still others are quite professional in presentation, with authors who profess or demonstrate vast experience. Just a few years ago, unreliable websites were often riddled with typographical errors or burdened with amateurish design and graphics.

Citing Sources (APA, MLA...)

For the purpose of academic research, most private websites should be considered popular sources, which can be useful as sources of opinion but should generally not be relied on for authoritative information. Private websites also raise issues of privacy, as some sites that require password access may not invite republication of their material in scholarly research. Follow this by the title of the website, if applicable.

MLA Handbook and Manuals

Some of these details may be hard to identify. In the example above, for instance, it was not possible to determine when the specific section of the website was last updated. Only the date of access is given. APA: Martin, G. A few more last words [Weblog post]. Even when hosted by a recognized organization, most blogs should probably be treated as popular rather than scholarly sources.

But in some cases, it may not be necessary to give the site sponsor.

When deciding whether to include the site sponsor, use your judgment: if the blog pursues a theme in common with the sponsor, list the sponsor. The formats below cover the most common ways to cite video clips that were published online on sites like YouTube and Vimeo. Video that was first published elsewhere but accessed online on sites like Netflix and Hulu is cited differently.

See the notes that follow for more information. YouTube, 23 Sept. Retrieved Aug. Booker, J [jbook]. Like other film and video formats, conventions for citing online video are less fixed than those for print or other kinds of online sources. The citation for a video clip that was first published online typically attributes the clip to the individual who posted it on the Internet.

For example, a film that is released online or an ongoing web series, may be more accurately attributed to the director or actors than the person who uploaded it to the Internet. MLA: Levy, Michael. APA: Levy, M. Re: your canon? There are many electronic forums that allow users with a specific interest or affiliation to discuss topics with each other.

Some of these are restricted to members of a group, or of a specific course.

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Many Yale courses, for instance, provide forum discussions through the Classesv2 server. Other such discussions are open to any interested party. Martin's Handbook. New York: St. Martin's Press, ; Mills, Elizabeth Shown. Purdue University; Using Evidence. Indiana University. The following USC Libraries research guide can help you properly cite sources in your research paper:. The following USC Libraries research guide offers basic information on using images and media in research:. Listed below are particularly well-done and comprehensive websites that provide specific examples of how to cite sources under different style guidelines.

This is a useful guide concerning how to properly cite images in your research paper.

Overview - Citing sources - LibGuides at MIT Libraries

This guide provides good information on the act of citation analysis, whereby you count the number of times a published work is cited by other works in order to measure the impact of a publication or author. The links below lead to systems where you can type in your information and have a citation compiled for you. Note that these are not foolproof systems so it is important that you verify that the citation is correct and check your spelling, capitalization, etc. However, they can be useful in creating basic types of citations, particularly for online sources.

When available, you should utilize these features because they not only generate a citation to the source [e.


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Contact us. Citing Sources Search this Guide Search. Citing Sources This guide provides advice on how to develop and organize a research paper in the social and behavioral sciences. The Conclusion Toggle Dropdown Appendices Definition A citation is a formal reference to a published or unpublished source that you consulted and obtained information from while writing your research paper.

Importance of a Citing your Sources Citations document for your readers where you obtained your material, a means of critiquing your study based on the sources you used, and an opportunity to obtain information about prior studies of the research problem under investigation. Properly citing the works of others is important because: Proper citation allows readers to locate the materials you used. Citations to other sources helps readers expand their knowledge on a topic. In most social sciences disciplines, one of the most effective strategies for locating authoritative, relevant sources about a topic is to follow footnotes or references from known sources ["citation tracking"].

Citing other people's words and ideas indicates that you have conducted a thorough review of the literature on your topic and, therefore, you are reporting your research from an informed and critically engaged perspective. This increases your credibility as the author of the work. Other researcher's ideas can be used to reinforce your arguments. In many cases, another researcher's arguments can act as the primary context from which you can emphasize the significance of your study and to provide supporting evidence about how you addressed the "So What?

The ideas of other researchers can be used to explain reasons for alternative approaches. If you disagree with a researcher's ideas or you believe there is a gap in understanding the research problem, your citations can serve as sources from which to argue an alternative viewpoint or the need to pursue a different course of action. Ju st as the ideas of other researchers can bolster your arguments, they can also detract from your credibility if their research is challenged. Properly citing sources prevents your reputation from being tarnished if the facts or ideas of those cited are proven to be inaccurate or off-base.

Plagiarism is a very serious offense.