Data communications research papers

A wireless sensor network WSN is a set of transducers with a communication infrastructure used to monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, pressure ,speed, illumination intensity, sound intensity, , chemical concentrations, pollutant levels, Body functions etc. A network algorithm is a procedure or formula for solving a problem. A network protocol can be defined as a set of rules, conventions and data structure which is used by network devices to communicate with each other across a network. Electronic engineering is an engineering discipline which utilizes non-linear and active electrical components to design electronic circuits, devices and systems.

Electronics engineers use scientific knowledge of the behaviour and effects of electrons to design, develop and test components, devices, systems or equipment that use electricity as part of their source of power. These components include capacitors, diodes, resistors and transistors. Data security is the practice of keeping data protected from corruption and unauthorized access.

It is the procedure of verifying information are accessible just to the individuals who need to utilize it for a legitimate purpose. Controlling access to information aides guarantee protection, and is needed by different government and Private Organizations.

Wireless Sensor Networks

Everything a computer knows or is able to know is called computer data. This includes e-mails, text files, digital pictures, and databases. Data storage is a general term for archiving data in many forms for use by a computer or device. A motion sensor is a device that senses moving objects.

It automatically performs a task or alerts a user of motion in an area. It finds its application in security , automated lighting control, home control, energy efficiency, and other useful systems. Artificial intelligence is the branch of computer science concerned with making computers ready to perform tasks such as visual perception , speech recognition , decision-making, and translation between languages. Normally these tasks requires human intelligence.

Therefore Artificial Intelligence is in short is the creation of intelligent machines that work and react like humans. Sensor network technology measures or detects a condition, such as motion, heat or light and converts the condition into an analog or digital representation. The sensor networks now been highlighted for its Applications for Green Growth and Environmental monitoring. ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high-level communication protocols used to create personal area networks developed as an open global standard to exemplify low-cost, low-power wireless M2M networks.

Data Communication is the exchange of data between two devices via some form of transmission medium. Data communication aims at the transfer of data and maintenance of the data during the process but not the actual generation of the information at the source and receiver. A distributed sensor networks are spatially distributed autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions and to pass their data through the network to a main location. Now a days large-scale networks of integrated wireless sensors become more popular. Advancements in hardware technology and engineering design made this new era more economical and automative.

Network security is protection of the access to files and directories in a computer network against hacking, misuse and unauthorized changes to the system. Network security is normally handled by a system administrator. He implements the security policy, network software and hardware needed to protect a network through unauthorized access.

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Data mining can be defined as processing and analyzing data from different perspectives and finally concluding it as useful information available for clients. In the 1 articles published in the three journals since , the name of an author was mentioned 3 times. After elimination of duplicates, a total of 2 unique authors were mentioned. In our study, 30 authors published five articles, 51 authors published four articles, 87 authors published three articles, and authors published two articles. This can be seen as confirming a trend towards more collaboration as part of an increasing institutionalisation.

To answer RQ3, we counted 57 different countries mentioned as the institutional base for authors in this study. Japan, in the ninth place, topped the list in terms of Asian countries where authors were based, while Brazil ranked 10 th performed best on the list of developing countries. The world map of science communication Figure 2 — based on this data — shows that most researchers worked for institutions based in North America and Europe, while fewer of them worked for institutions in Asian and South American countries, and even fewer in African countries and the Middle East.

South Africa took a leading position when it came to African countries, being the global number The number of authors from UK-based institutions has increased steadily since More recently, Germany took the 3 rd place in terms of institutional affiliations reflected in these three journals.

Brazil, South Africa and Singapore are included as examples of countries with noticeable recent mentions as countries where authors are based. Patterns shown by countries such as Australia, Canada and Germany can be explained by the higher output of Public Understanding of Science. However, the dominance of the USA was particularly apparent in Science Communication and most certainly related to the early years of the journal. To answer RQ4 the gender balance of authors , of the 2 authors, Looking at developments over time Figure 4 , we can see that in the early years, authors were predominantly male.


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Recently, however, female authors became more dominant than males. Countries such as Australia, Canada, Japan, and Switzerland presented a very balanced picture in terms of the female vs. Brazil was the only country with significantly more female than male authors, while Denmark, Spain, Germany and the Netherlands were represented by more male than female authors. Men also published more than women in the case of authors from the UK and the USA, but the gender difference was less apparent when compared to the countries mentioned before. This verifies the increase in science communication research noted earlier by Gascoigne et al.

Furthermore, the fact that both of the historically established journals increased the number of issues published per year, and that more recently a new, open-access journal has been established successfully, demonstrate a growing interest on the part of researchers and a positive trend in high-quality research activity in the field.

Science communication research seems to follow the overall trend in growing output in scientific research in general, as referred to by Bauer and Howard [ ]. While it is encouraging that a total of 2 unique authors contributed to published research in our study, it is less reassuring that the vast majority of them This could mean that many individuals were involved in science communication research only fleetingly, and that the sustained research outputs over time originate from a much smaller number of scholars.

Furthermore, the fact that only 28 researchers published six or more articles over the entire period since and in all three journals combined is perhaps an indication that there are still relatively few research leaders in the field — which is to be expected in an emerging and multi-disciplinary field of research [Gascoigne et al. The positive shift towards institutional collaboration as demonstrated by a growth in multi-authored papers and internationalisation a growth in involvement of different countries in multi-authored papers bode well for the future of the field where many scholars have emphasised the importance of involving researchers from around the world and reflecting the truly global nature of science communication research [Massarani, ; Trench and Bucchi, ].

This is where gaps and challenges in the field of science communication research lie. Lastly, the trend towards more female authors enhances the gender diversity of the field [see also Trench and Bucchi, ]. However, the current study was only a starting point towards providing a comprehensive picture of trends in science communication research. In this study, we were only interested in bibliographic data, and the study was limited to three journals only.

While the inclusion of more journals would provide a more comprehensive analysis, it is an open question whether this would necessarily alter any of the patterns and trends observed by focusing exclusively on the three journals dedicated to research in the field of science communication. Furthermore, the current study included only English-language journals, acknowledging that English is the lingua franca of modern science [Bauer and Howard, ], but recognising that science communication research is also published in other languages for example the Japanese Journal of Science Communication and in regional contexts such as the English-language Indian Journal of Science Communication.

For China, Xu, Huang and Wu [ ] highlight that very few Chinese scholars publish in international journals — such as the three selected for the present study — but rather in local academic journals. We also acknowledge that quantity volume of articles published is not necessarily a measure of impact and that the current study did not compare the acceptance rates or impact factors of the journals under consideration, nor did we assess the quality of the published research outputs alt- or scientometrically.

While there were specific reasons for these limitations, a follow-up study could include more sources including books and grey literature , as well as extend the content focus on the topics of research, the scientific fields in which the research is embedded and the methodologies used. Such an approach would go further towards identifying research gaps and challenges, as well as research priorities [for an attempt, see Bauer and Howard, ; or Smallman, ].

Furthermore, Trench and Bucchi [ ] comment that science communication is under-theorised. This claim deserves further validation. From time to time, scholarly journals publish special issues focusing on a particular topic in science communication — reflecting on current research and typically also looking forward to future research challenges.

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All three journals included in our study regularly published such special issues. It is debatable, however, whether it is the role of scholarly journals to address gaps and imbalances in the scholarly literature, or whether this is a task for the research community and funders of science communication research. Arguably, instead of calling for research papers from developing country authors, a more effective way of stimulating diversity in research authorship would be to encourage collaborative research that would include researchers in developing countries from the outset of multi-country research projects.

For example, if research funders provided incentives for researchers from the developed world to include partners from developing countries in their research designs, this is likely to result in multi-authored papers which would include developing country authors. To give an illustrative example of why developing countries are underrepresented in scholarly journals, we conclude this paper with an extended view of the African continent.

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Our study yielded only 20 papers from Africa, representing only 1. Jointly, these 20 papers had 19 Africa-affiliated authors, which is only 0. Bauer and Howard [ , p. However, it is important to take note of the particular science communication challenges that are prevalent in developing countries in general, and in some African countries in particular, that may restrict science communication research outputs coming from this continent.

Historically, science was suppressed in Africa during colonial times, similarly to the way it was kept away from Brazilian citizens during the Portuguese occupation, as described by Massarani and De Castro Moreira [ ]. Only the colonial powers had access to scientific knowledge thanks to their education and links with Europe, and their scientific interests were focused on their own needs in fields such as navigation, astronomy, cartography, mining, plantations, and the use of local plants, as well as the collection of plant and animal specimens that were sent back to Europe.

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In South Africa, the majority of the people continued to be isolated from science during the Apartheid regime which lasted up until — a period when science was equated with strategic advantage and the communication of scientific ideas was suppressed [Dubow, ]. Furthermore, the cultural and language barriers that are prevalent in many developing countries present specific challenges for public science engagement [Fish et al.

Clayton and Joubert [ ] explain the barriers that science journalists in Africa face in terms of getting access to science news. Bakyawa et al. Appiah et al. Ndlovu, Joubert and Boshoff [ ] illustrate how the lack of incentives and the censoring of politically sensitive findings limit public communication of research findings in Zimbabwe. Massarani and De Castro Moreira [ ] discuss the challenges of effectively communicating science in a very large country with widely dispersed rural populations — a situation that is relevant in many African countries.

Hin and Subramaniam [ ] further explicate some of the social and structural barriers that typically constrain public science communication in developing countries.

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In addition to perceived clashes between a modern science culture and indigenous knowledge or native culture , science communication is hampered by a lack of institutional mechanisms such as science academies, scientific societies suitable for promoting public science engagement, while inadequacies in science journalism expertise and platforms remain a concern.

The authors also highlight the challenges of promoting science to communities that are plagued by poverty, famine, corruption, violence and political instability. In this context, it is vital to note that, in developing world contexts, public communication of science and technology has to resonate with societal needs and priorities and demonstrate the relevance of science in public health, food security, shelter and safety. At the same time, the life challenges that many Africans face on a daily basis necessitates improved understanding of science and better engagement between scientists and communities.

For example, Nyirenda et al.


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There is no doubt that the African continent presents a rich and multi-faceted study terrain for science communication scholars and that there are huge opportunities for cross-country collaborations between established researchers in other parts of the world and African counterparts. However, for Africa to make a more meaningful contribution to research in this field, a significant and concerted effort to stimulate research skills, interest and activity will be required.

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Any opinion, finding and conclusion or recommendation expressed in this material is that of the authors and the NRF does not accept any liability in this regard. The authors wish to thank their two antonymous reviewers as well as Susanna Hornig Priest and Emma Weitkamp for their good recommendations.

We also thank Peter Weingart and Surina Meintjes for helping conceptualizing this study. Appiah, B.